Strategy Implementation: A Determinant of Competitive Academic Performance among Secondary Schools in Kenya

  • Festus Kinyua Riungu Thika Technical Training Institute & Kenya Methodist University
  • Thomas A. Senaji, PhD Kenya Methodist University
  • Hellen Mugambi, PhD St. Paul’s University, Limuru, Kenya
Keywords: Academic performance, competitive, strategy implementation


Education plays a critical role in ensuring the survival of any nation in the global economic setup leading to emphasis on quality outcomes of education. Strategic management practice is a very critical factor for any organization’s survival in the modern competitive operating environment. The purpose of the study was to establish whether schools adopt strategic management practices and their influence on competitive academic performance. Strategic management practices were decomposed into specific objectives of environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategy control. The study concentrated on the role of strategy implementation on competitive academic performance of secondary schools. It was conducted in eastern counties of Kenya namely, Meru, Embu, Tharaka Nithi, Kitui and Machakos informed by stakeholder and human resource-based theories of strategic management. The study adopted cross-sectional survey design with a target population of principals of secondary schools in eastern counties with a frame of 919. The counties were divided into strata with a sample of 273 drawn based on survey monkey formula. The counties were further stratified and random samples drawn from each stratum. Data collection was through questionnaires, analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that schools had intricate programmes for strategy implementation and processes which when followed enabled the schools to remain competitive. Overall strategy implementation practice was found to have a significant influence on competitive academic performance. It is recommended that strategic management training be extended to all school principals with emphasis on strategy implementation because the input of employees who are strategy implementers determine performance. Participation in strategy implementation should be through shared responsibility enabling the heads of departments to shoulder responsibility for the outcomes. Finally, the study recommends that principals should be allowed to complete at least two cycles of strategic management in one school for their strategy implementation capabilities to be reflected in academic performance and hence used for making and implementation of proper decisions.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmadi, S. A. A., Salamzadeh, Y., Daraei, M., & Akbari, J. (2012). Relationship between organizational culture and strategy implementation: Typologies and dimensions. Global Business and Management Research, 4(3/4), 286.

Allio, M. K. (2005). A short, practical guide to implementing strategy. Journal of business strategy, 26(4), 12-21.

Ayiro, L. P., & Arap Sang, J. K. (2010). Education leadership in a globalized economy: A Kenyan perspective. Journal of Science and Technology Education Research, 1(4), 62-72

Baker, T. L. (1994). Doing social research (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Inc

Barney, J. B. (1986b). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656-665.

Dauda, Y., Akingbade, W, A., & Akinlabi, H, B. (2010). Strategic management practice and corporate performance of selected small business enterprises in Lagos Metropolis. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(11), 97-104.

Infotrak. (2015). County trak index by regions. Retrieved from

Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service. (2014). 80,000 Students to join various universities & colleges. Retrieved from

Kinoti, H. W. (1998). Hand book of social research methods. Nairobi: The National Council of Churches.

Kohtamäki, M., Kraus, S., & Rönkkö, M. (2012). The role of personnel commitment to strategy implementation and organizational learning within the relationship between strategic planning and company performance, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 18(2),159-178.

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2014). Basic education statistical handbook. Retrieved from

MOEST. (2014). List of public secondary school. State Department of Education Nairobi, Kenya.

Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research methods – quantitative and qualitative approaches (1st ed.). Nairobi: ACTS Press.

Musomba, K. S., Kerongo, F. M., Mutua, N. M., & Kilika, S. (2013). Factors affecting the effectiveness of constituency development projects in Changamwe Constituency, Kenya: Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary, 1(8), 175-215

Mwashinga, P, M. Karim, H, O., Ndinya, A., & Mngoda. D, M. (2014). The effect of strategic management practices on performance of public secondary schools in Mwatate Sub-County. International Journal of Business and Behavioural Sciences, 4(10), 13-45.

Ndinza, K. L. (2015). Influence of head teachers’ management practices on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools within kitui central district, Kitui County. (Unpublished masters’ dissertation South Eastern Kenya University). Retrieved from

Nyagosia, P, O., Waweru, S, N., & Njuguna, F. W. (2013). Factors influencing academic achievement in public secondary schools in Central Kenya: An effective schools’ Perspective Educational Research International 2: (2)307-3721

Oso, Y., & Onen D. (2011). A General guide to writing research proposal and report. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation

Pashiardis, P., Kafa, A., & Marmara, C. (2012). Successful secondary principalship in Cyprus, what have “Thucydides” and “Plato “revealed to us? Journal of Educational Management, 26(5), 480-493.

Raduan, C. R., Jegak, U., Haslinda A., & Alimin, I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-417.

Speculand, R. (2014). Bridging the strategy implementation skills gap. Strategic Direction, 30(1). 29-30.

Survey Monkey. (2016). Sample size calculator. Retrieved from

Thompson, A. A., Strickland, A. J., & Gamble, J. E. (2012). Crafting and executing strategy. The quest for competitive advantage. concepts and cases. New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Wheelen, T. L. & Hunger, D. (2012). Strategic management and business policy. New York, Pearson Education

Wudhikarn, R. (2016). An efficient resource allocation in strategic management using a novel hybrid method. Management Decision, 54(7), 1702 -1731

How to Cite
Riungu, F., Senaji, T., & Mugambi, H. (2019). Strategy Implementation: A Determinant of Competitive Academic Performance among Secondary Schools in Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 4(1), 197-208. Retrieved from