Login or Register to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • Author Warranties: by submission of material to the RVTTI International Conferences and AfriTVET all authors warrant that the material is their own, original material or that copyright clearance has been acquired to reproduce other material from employers, third parties or attributed to third parties, and that the material has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. AfriTVET reserves right to reject any work that abuses the fair usage policy through plagiarism and the like
  • By submitting material to RVTTI International Conferences and AfriTVET, all authors of the material agree to indemnify AfriTVET, and its heirs and assigns in business, against any litigation or claims that may arise from the content of or opinions in the material provided. Submission of material to RVTTI International Conferences and AfriTVET also imply all authors’ consent to assignment of the material’s copyright to AfriTVET when that material is accepted for publication in the journal, for the full legal term of copyright and any renewals thereof throughout the world in all formats and in any medium of communication.
    If the corresponding author is no longer active, any of the other authors may become the corresponding author and they will accordingly be bound by these terms and conditions.
    (Note: On acceptance for publication, an agreement specifying the terms noted here and above will be sent to the corresponding author for signature by the corresponding author who is duly authorized to sign this agreement on behalf of all authors and contributors. No printers proof will be sent to the author. The copy provided by the author on acceptance is the version used for typesetting. The publisher reserves the right to make editing corrections).
  • 3. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in the guidelines above.
  • A citation should refer to a publication listed in the References section of the manuscript and all references should have been cited in the text
  • Tables and figures - Note that tables have no vertical lines within or outside the text. i.e use only limited and necessary horizontal lines and NO vertical lines
  • Papers published in AfriTVET are directly sourced from the RVTTI International Conferences.No further charge will be surcharged to the presenters who have presented their papers in their conference. The Conference Rates are; Kenyan and East African Participants @KES 4, 000 each, Non East African Participants @ USD 100 each or its KES equivalent. Group rates available for 5 or more

Author Guidelines

Prepared by: Agnes Rono, Managing Editor AfriTVET Journal www.afritvet.org or www.afritvetjournal.org Contributions must be original or reviewed articles but not previously submitted elsewhere for publication. Contributions should add to knowledge and understanding the guided thematic areas of the international conferences from which papers presented are published in the journals. All papers are expected to be analytical, with reports of studies interpreted both in terms of the theoretical literature and in terms of contemporary issues as addressed by the relevant RVTTI Annual International Conferences themes and by Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (AfriTVET) ISSN 2518-2722 (online) and ISSN 2413-984X (Print). Articles are submitted to the AfriTVET Journal hosted in www.afritvetjournal.org or www.afritvet.org or RVTTI website.

Policy on Plagiarism

Papers submitted to Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training will be screened for plagiarism using plagiarism detection tools such as Grammarly,TurnitIn and Copyscape. Any submission that exceeds fair use or fails to appropriately cite sources will be rejected. Authors are advised to review their works and ensure they cite all sources used before submission to avoid rejection.


All articles submitted to the secretariat of the journals are subject to the conventional double-blind refereeing system.

Initial submission

To ensure prompt review of your paper, please observe the instructions on-screen and take note that:
  1. Manuscripts should be saved as a Microsoft Word. These should contain: title of the manuscript, key words, article text, references, figures, and tables in that order, as one document.
  2. A 250-350-word abstract in one continuous paragraph is required for the papers to be published.
  3. The abstracts and full papers should contain: Title of the paper; Name(s) of author; Email and Cell Phone Number.
  4. Abstracts should have words between 250 and 300, be in block format; Times New Roman 12; Single spacing; At most 5 key words.
  5. Full papers should have words between 3000 and 3500. Times New Roman 12; Single line spacing.
  6. All correspondence will be sent to the first listed author.
  7. Please list all authors in the order they are to appear on the title page.

Style Guide

The Journals use the APA (American Psychological Association) Formatting and Style Guide 6th edition for the formatting of submissions. For more information, Download Author Guidelines and APA 6th Ed. 2nd Print. Guidelines or refer to www.rvti.ac.ke or please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing. The official spelling is UK, but American spellings are also acceptable provided that they are used consistently. Translation of articles from other languages into English is encouraged and should be provided by professional translators. The Editors reserve the right to make editorial and literary corrections.
Tabular and statistical materials, graphs, figures and charts should be kept to a minimum and be formatted in APA style - 6th Edition. Body of manuscript should be one document file commencing with the manuscript title; an Abstract of about 300-350 words; at most 5 Key words. Citations and References should be accurate, current and consistent throughout. The journals use APA Style. Please ensure that in-text citations appear in References, and vice-versa as appropriate. The accuracy and format of reference citations is the authors' responsibility
Photographs: Are not encouraged because of the difficulty in printing quality and must be restricted to only one. Electronic black and white (grayscale) TIFFs of high resolution (300 dpi minimum) are preferred, around 300 KB in size. Low resolution (i.e. under 150 dpi) JPEGs or GIFs are NOT suitable for printing.
Headings and Sections: The use of sub-headings is recommended, but such sub-headings should not be numbered. The first level of sub-heading should be bold capitals; the second, bold lower case, sentence case; and the third, italicized, sentence case.
MAIN HEADINGS: (all capital letters; centered) are first and should be used to identify the (normal) three or four major sections of the manuscript.
Second-level headings: (title-style; flush left; nothing else on the line) are next.
Third-level headings: (first letter of first word capitalized; indented and italicized) are next.


Data and Sample Measures Independent Variable References: References in the text should give the author's name and year of publication (with page number if necessary) according to the APA with minimal capitalization. References should be formatted as per examples in our websites www.afritvetjournal.org or www.afritvet.org or www.rvti.ac.ke.

APA Tables and Figures

Prepared by: Agnes Rono, Managing Editor, AfriTVET Journal.

APA Tables

This resource is revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual and offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document. Most word processing software available today will allow you to create your own tables and figures, and even the most basic of word processors permit the embedding of images, thus enabling you to include tables and figures in almost any document.

General guidelines

Necessity: Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table.
Relation of Tables or Figures and Text: Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on her own.
Documentation: If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources.
Integrity and Independence: Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).
Organization, Consistency, and Coherence: Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article. Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the same data in different tables.

Table Checklist

  • Is the table necessary?
  • Is the entire table single- or double-spaced (including the title, headings, and notes)?
  • Are all comparable tables presented consistently?
  • Is the title brief but explanatory?
  • Does every column have a column heading?
  • Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained?
  • Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document?
  • Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability?
  • Are all vertical rules eliminated?
  • If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited?
  • Is the table referred to in the text?

Table Data Presentation

Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before / after, young / old, male / female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively.

Table Structure

The following image illustrates the basic structure of tables.

Specific Types of Tables

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Tables: The conventional format for an ANOVA table is to list the source in the stub column, then the degrees of freedom (df) and the F ratios. Give the between-subject variables and error first, then within-subject and any error. Mean square errors must be enclosed in parentheses. Provide a general note to the table to explain what those values mean (see example). Use asterisks to identify statistically significant F ratios, and provide a probability footnote.
Table 3 ANOVA Table Regression: Conventional reporting of regression analysis follows two formats. If the study is purely applied, list only the raw or unstandardized coefficients (B). If the study is purely theoretical, list only the standardized coefficients (beta). If the study was neither purely applied nor theoretical, then list both standardized and unstandardized coefficents. Specify the type of analysis, either hierarchical or simultaneous, and provide the increments of change if you used hierarchical regression.
Table 4 Regression Table

Notes in Tables

There are three types of notes for tables: general, specific, and probability notes. All of them must be placed below the table in that order.

  • General notes explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole. Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc. here.

    Example: Note. The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race.

  • Specific notes explain, qualify or provide information about a particular column, row, or individual entry. To indicate specific notes, use superscript lowercase letters (e.g. a, b, c), and order the superscripts from left to right, top to bottom. Each table’s first footnote must be the superscript a.
    Example: a n = 823. b One participant in this group was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the survey.
  • Probability notes provide the reader with the results of the texts for statistical significance. Asterisks indicate the values for which the null hypothesis is rejected, with the probability (p value) specified in the probability note. Such notes are required only when relevant to the data in the table. Consistently use the same number of asterisks for a given alpha level throughout your paper.

Sample Table Notes If you need to distinguish between two-tailed and one-tailed tests in the same table, use asterisks for two-tailed p values and an alternate symbol (such as daggers) for one-tailed p values.

APA Figures

Figure Checklist

  • Is the figure necessary?
  • Is the figure simple, clean, and free of extraneous detail?
  • Are the data plotted accurately?
  • Is the grid scale correctly proportioned?
  • Is the lettering large and dark enough to read? Is the lettering compatible in size with the rest of the figure?
  • Are parallel figures or equally important figures prepared according to the same scale?
  • Are terms spelled correctly?
  • Are all abbreviations and symbols explained in a figure legend or figure caption? Are the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology in the figure consistent with those in the figure caption? In other figures? In the text?
  • Are the figures numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals?
  • Are all figures mentioned in the text?
As tables supplement the text, so should each figure.

Types of Figures

  • Graphs are good at quickly conveying relationships like comparison and distribution. The most common forms of graphs are scatter plots, line graphs, bar graphs, pictorial graphs, and pie graphs. For more details and specifics on what kind of information, relations, and meaning can be expressed with the different types of graphs, consult your textbook on quantitative analysis. Spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel, can generate the graphs for you.
  • Scatter plots are composed of individual dots that represent the value of a specific event on the scale established by the two variables plotted on the x- and y-axes. When the dots cluster together, a correlation is implied. On the other hand, when the dots are scattered randomly, no correlation is seen.

  • Scatter Plot Graph
  • Line graphs depict the relationship between quantitative variables. Customarily, the independent variable is plotted along the x-axis (horizontally) and the dependent variable is plotted along the y-axis (vertically). See example Figure 1...
  • Bar graphs come in three main types: 1) solid vertical or horizontal bars, 2) multiple bar graphs, and 3) sliding bars. In solid bar graphs, the independent variable is categorical, and each bar represents one kind of datum, e. g. a bar graph of monthly expenditures. A multiple bar graph can show more complex information than a simple bar graph, e. g. monthly expenditures divided into categories (housing, food, transportation, etc.). In sliding bar graphs, the bars are divided by a horizontal line which serves as the baseline, enabling the representation of data above and below a specific reference point, e. g. high and low temperatures v. average temperature.

  • Bar Graph

    Bar Graph by Type

    Pictorial graphs can be used to show quantitative differences between groups. Pictorial graphs can be very deceptive: if the height of an image is doubled, its area is quadrupled. Therefore, great care should be taken that images representing the same values must be the same size.
    Circle (pie) graphs are used to represent percentages and proportions. For the sake of readability, no more than five variables should be compared in a single pie graph. The segments should be ordered very strictly: beginning at twelve o’clock, order them from the largest to the smallest, and shade the segments from dark to light (i.e., the largest segment should be the darkest). Lines and dots can be used for shading in black and white documents.
    Circle (or Pie) Graph Charts are used to represent the components of larger objects or groups (e. g. a tribal hierarchy), the steps in a process (as in a flow-chart), or the schematics of an object (the components of a cell phone).
    Chart Drawings and photographs can be used to communicate very specific information about a subject. Thanks to software, both are now highly manipulable. For the sake of readability and simplicity, line drawings should be used, and photographs should have the highest possible contrast between the background and focal point. Cropping, cutting out extraneous detail, can be very beneficial for a photograph. Use software like GraphicConverter or Photoshop to convert color photographs to black and white before printing on a laser printer. Otherwise most printers will produce an image with poor contrast.

    Preparing Figures

    In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages. While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers. Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. Design improperly, or amateurishly, done draws the reader’s attention from the data, and makes him or her question the author’s credibility. The APA has determined specifications for the size of figures and the fonts used in them. Figures of one column must be between 2 and 3.25 inches wide (5 to 8.45 cm). Two-column figures must be between 4.25 and 6.875 inches wide (10.6 to 17.5 cm). The height of figures should not exceed the top and bottom margins. The text in a figure should be in a san serif font (such as Helvetica, Arial, or Futura). The font size must be between eight and fourteen point. Use circles and squares to distinguish curves on a line graph (at the same font size as the other labels). (See examples above.)

    Captions and Legends

    For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption. These elements appear below the visual display. For the figure number, type Figure X. Then type the title of the figure in sentence case. Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in the figure and a caption that explains the figure:
    Figure 1.  How to create figures in APA style. This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures.

    Captions serve as a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title. For example, “Figure 4. Population” is insufficient, whereas “Figure 4. Population of Grand Rapids, MI by race (1980)” is better. If the figure has a title in the image, crop it.
    Graphs should always include a legend that explains the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology used in the figure. These terms must be consistent with those used in the text and in other figures. The lettering in the legend should be of the same type and size as that used in the figure.

    Reference List: Basic Rules

    Prepared by: Agnes Rono, Managing Editor, AfriTVET Journal Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
    Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
    Basic Rules
    • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
    • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
    • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
    • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
    • Present the journal title in full.
    • Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
    • For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice.

    • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
    • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
    • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
    • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
    • Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing). 

    Reference List: Author/Authors for AfriTVET Journal

    Prepared by: Agnes Rono, Managing Editor, AfriTVET Journal

    The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.) {Prepared by Agnes Rono}

    1. Single Author

      Last name first, followed by author initials.

      Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

    2. Two Authors

      List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

      Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

    3. Three to Seven Authors

      List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

      Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

    4. More Than Seven Authors

      List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

      Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

    5. Organization as Author

      List the Organization Name and Year of Publication.

      American Psychological Association. (2003).

    6. Unknown Author

      Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

      NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).
    7. Two or More Works by the Same Author

      • Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).

        Berndt, T. J. (1981).

        Berndt, T. J. (1999).

      • When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

        Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

        Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

      • References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

        Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.

        Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.

    8. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

      If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."

      Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

      Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

    9. Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

      Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

      Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

    Download the guidelines

    You can download the above guidelines using the following links Author Guidelines for AfriTVET Journal APA Tables and Figures Guidelines Reference List: Basic Rules for AfriTVET Journal Reference List: Author/Authors for AfriTVET Journal

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.