Digital Migration: E-Learning and Primary School Teacher Nightmare in Kenya

  • Edward K Tanui
  • Lucy Ndegwa Wanjira
Keywords: dilemma, e-learning, teacher, 21st century, learning, nightmare


Education is a fundamental right for all children. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor skill acquisition in learners has to be achieved at all costs. Conventional methods have been used in classes since time immemorial but with partial success. E-learning is a new orientation that is reported to have great potential to improve teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. The pedagogic rationale for the implementation of ICT in learning in schools is something that needs to be hastened for the 21st century teacher. Provision of laptops to the more than 20,000 primary schools in Kenya was a step towards digital migration in education from analogue system of teaching and learning to digital approach. How the teacher interacts with electronic media is of paramount importance. The need for teachers to migrate from analogue to digital e-learning here referred to as digital migration in education is a challenge that needs to be explained. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population for the study included, teachers and pupils. The study used questionnaires and informal interviews to collect data. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The study found that teachers face a dilemma on which way to go as regards adopting e-learning. Their dilemma is compounded by factors beyond them. Politics and economics become bigger players. One is saying yes and the other says no, scarce resources are the problem. Provision of resources to be used is external to the teacher especially the primary school teacher. The laptop project is a step towards digital migration but the dilemma is how, when and with what to use to migrate. There is need to find ways to overcome the dilemma which brings is a nightmare to the teachers whether migration will mean early retirement or redundancy. The study recommends the conversion of the soul of the teachers both material and spiritually so that the digital migration can take place smoothly.

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How to Cite
Tanui, E., & Wanjira, L. (2016). Digital Migration: E-Learning and Primary School Teacher Nightmare in Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 1(1), 82-92. Retrieved from