E-Learning Readiness and Perceptions of Trainers towards Teaching Skills-Based Courses among TVET Institutions in North Imenti Constituency, Meru County, Kenya

  • Patrick Nyamemba Nyakundi
Keywords: Online learning, TVET trainers, COVID-19, Pedagogy, e-learning


With the emergence of COVID-19 coupled with the advent of the digital era, face-to-face learning has been challenged in addressing the learning and teaching needs of both trainees and trainers. Online learning has been adopted to address this unique challenge, however, teaching skills-based courses online has not been explored. Therefore, the current study investigated eLearning readiness and perceptions of TVET trainers to teach skills-based courses in North Imenti Constituency, Meru County. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design to conduct the investigation among 177 TVET trainers who were selected using proportionate sampling from two TVET institutions and a simple random sampling was done within each institution. A semi-structured consolidated, Likert-scale, digital questionnaire was sent by online platforms, that is, email and WhatsApp to solicit data on elearning readiness and perceptions and the competency of teaching skills-based courses online. Data was downloaded from google drive, exported to SPSS, coded, cleaned and transformed. The five-Likert scale was compressed into dichotomous variables. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, percentages and inferential statistics, that is, logistic regression was performed to get associations. Most of the respondents were young (65%), employed by PSC (61.0%), and were not ready to teach online (75.1%), however, a few of them (33.9%) were enthusiastic. The enthusiastic respondents were 2.6 times (OR= 2.573, p = 0.006) more likely to be competent in teaching skills-based courses online as compared with those whose perception was neutral. One in three trainers had a positive perception and one in two trainers was competent in teaching skills-based courses online, however, three in four trainers were not ready for the same. The Ministry of Education should develop training and sensitization packages for TVET trainers on ICT integration in education, e-learning and effective change management.

Article Views and Downloands Counter

Download data is not yet available.


Alam, A., & Tiwari, P. (2020). Putting the ‘learning’’ back in remote learning - Policies to uphold effective continuity of learning through COVID-19.’ UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/globalinsight/reports/putting-learning-back-remote-learning

Alazam, A. O., Bakar, A. R., Hamzah, R., & Asmiran, S. (2012). Teachers’ ICT skills and ICT integration in thecClassroom: The case of vocational and technical teachers in Malaysia. Scientific Research, 03(08), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2012.38b016

Azis, Y. M., Suharyati, H., & Susanti, S. (2019). Student’s experience of e-learning, learning process and perceived learning outcomes in Economic Math course. Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(2), 67–71. https://doi.org/10.33751/jhss.v3i2.1458

Belaya, V. (2018). The Use of elLearning in vocational education and training (VET): Systematization of existing theoretical approaches. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(5), 92. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v7n5p92

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4), 793–818. https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.20377

Brolpito, A., Lightfoot, M., Radišic, J., & Šcepanovic, D. (2016). Digital and online learning in vocational education and training in Serbia: A Case Study. European Training ….

Elstad, E., & Christophersen, K. A. (2017). Perceptions of digital competency among student teachers: Contributing to the development of student teachers’ instructional selfefficacy in technology-rich classrooms. Education Sciences,7(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci7010027

Explorateurs, L., Nigon, J., & le Conseil de, P. (2014). Higher education’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic: Building a more sustainable and democratic future.

Graff, R. (2008). Faculty perceptions of readiness to teach online. In University of Florida (PhD Dissertation).

Hatlevik, O. E., Scherer, R., & Christophersen, K. A. (2017). Moving beyond the study of gender differences: An analysis of measurement invariance and differential item functioning of an ICT literacy scale. Computers and Education, 113, 280–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.06.003

Heuel, E., & Feldmann, B. (2014). Quality standards for E-learning in vocational education and training: The certified European E-Tutor. In Springer Proceedings in Complexity (pp. 93–100). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7308-0_10

ILO. (2018). Policy note distance and a-learning in TVET. https://www.ilo.org/jakarta/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_732618/lang--en/index.htm

ILO/World Bank. (2021). Skills development in the time of COVID-19: Taking stock of the initial responses in technical and vocational education and training United. wcms_766557.pdf

Lerner, J. E. (2016). Learning in Virtual Worlds: Research and Applications. In American Journal of Distance Education (Vol. 30, Issue 4). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2016.1232562

Mohalik, R. (2020). Digital Literacy and Its Use by Teacher Trainess at Secondary Level in Odisha. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 1(2), 242–250. https://doi.org/10.47175/rielsj.v1i2.90

Mohalik, R., & Sahoo, S. (2020). E-Readiness and Perception of Student Teachers’ Towards Online Learning in the Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal (NonPeer-Review Article). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3666914

Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. (2016). Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-016-0034-x

Ramadan, A., Chen, X., & Hudson, L. L. (2018). Teachers’ Skills and ICT Integration in Technical and Vocational Education and Training TVET: A Case of Khartoum StateSudan. World Journal of Education, 8(3), 31. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v8n3p31

Smith, C., Hoderi, M., & Mcdermott, W. (2019). A Preliminary Study of Students Perception and Learning from Different Delivery Methods. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 23(2), 1C.

Tsai, C. C., & Chai, C. S. (2012). The “third”order barrier for technology-integration instruction: Implications for teacher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 1057–1060. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.810

How to Cite
Nyakundi, P. (2023). E-Learning Readiness and Perceptions of Trainers towards Teaching Skills-Based Courses among TVET Institutions in North Imenti Constituency, Meru County, Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 8(1), 66-77. Retrieved from https://afritvet.org/index.php/Afritvet/article/view/161