The Efficacy of Rapid Diagnostic Test over Blood Slide Microscopy Method used in Diagnosis of Malaria at AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital
AbstractWorld Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria worldwide with Sub-Saharan Africa having 88 percent of malaria cases and 90 percent of malaria deaths. In Kenya, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with more than 70 percent of the population at risk of the disease. Malaria is caused by protozoa parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is diagnosed microscopically by staining thick and thin blood films. It requires a lot of experience and expertise to diagnose malaria when at low levels. In addition, it is difficult to microscopically diagnose malaria in areas with no electricity. With the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests, malaria diagnosis in rural and remote areas is possible. It is thus important to test efficacy of rapid diagnosis tests in Kapsowar Mission Hospital with the aim of rolling out the usage of the kits. The objectives of the study were to test the efficacy of rapid diagnostic test kits and determine the prevalence of malaria in patients attending AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital. Informed consent was sought from patients to be included in the study. The patients’ history was taken and a blood sample drawn to test for malaria. Two tests were performed on each sample which included a thick smear stained with giemsa and examined via microscope to determine presence of malarial parasites and a parallel test using the rapid diagnostic test kits. Data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS V.16.0 for windows. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and subjected to t-test and statistical significance level determined at p< 0.05. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test kit was found to be 81% while the specificity was 87%. The prevalence of malaria was found to be 38% with more children and pregnant women having the highest confirmed cases of malaria. The study recommended that rapid diagnostic test kits be availed in remote areas for more efficient and rapid diagnosis of malaria.
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