The Efficacy of Rapid Diagnostic Test over Blood Slide Microscopy Method used in Diagnosis of Malaria at AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital

  • Salinah J Rono University of Eldoret
  • Esther M. Yego AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital, Kenya
Keywords: Malaria, giemsa stain, rapid diagnostic test, sensitivity, specificity


World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria worldwide with Sub-Saharan Africa having 88 percent of malaria cases and 90 percent of malaria deaths. In Kenya, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with more than 70 percent of the population at risk of the disease. Malaria is caused by protozoa parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is diagnosed microscopically by staining thick and thin blood films. It requires a lot of experience and expertise to diagnose malaria when at low levels. In addition, it is difficult to microscopically diagnose malaria in areas with no electricity. With the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests, malaria diagnosis in rural and remote areas is possible. It is thus important to test efficacy of rapid diagnosis tests in Kapsowar Mission Hospital with the aim of rolling out the usage of the kits. The objectives of the study were to test the efficacy of rapid diagnostic test kits and determine the prevalence of malaria in patients attending AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital. Informed consent was sought from patients to be included in the study. The patients’ history was taken and a blood sample drawn to test for malaria. Two tests were performed on each sample which included a thick smear stained with giemsa and examined via microscope to determine presence of malarial parasites and a parallel test using the rapid diagnostic test kits. Data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS V.16.0 for windows. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and subjected to t-test and statistical significance level determined at p< 0.05. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test kit was found to be 81% while the specificity was 87%. The prevalence of malaria was found to be 38% with more children and pregnant women having the highest confirmed cases of malaria. The study recommended that rapid diagnostic test kits be availed in remote areas for more efficient and rapid diagnosis of malaria.


Arevalo-Herrera, M., Quinones, M. L., Guerra ,C., Cespedes, N., Giron, S, et al. (2012). Malaria in selected non-Amazonian countries of Latin America. Acta Trop 121: 303–314.

Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Part 2. 2nd Edition, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jiang. (2010). Co-infections with plasmodium knowlesi and other malaria parasites, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Disease journal-CDC.16, (9). http://wwwnc.

Kyabayinze, D. J., Tibenderana, J. K., Odong, G. W., Rwakimari, J. B., & Counihan, H. (2008). Operational accuracy and comparative persistent antigenicity of HRP2 rapid diagnostic tests for plasmodium falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic region of Uganda. Malaria Journal, 7, 221. doi:10.1186/1475-

Lee, K.-S., Cox-Singh, J., Brooke, G., Matusop, A., & Singh, B. (2009). Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: Further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in Malaysian Borneo. International Journal for Parasitology, 39(10), 1125–8. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.03.003

Lokom, J. (1996). A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria. WHO informal consultation on recent advances in diagnostic techniques and vaccines for malaria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74(1), 47–54. http://www. fcgi?artid=2486846&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

McCutchan, T. F., Piper, R. C., & Makler, M. T. (2008). Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test to identify plasmodium knowlesi infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases,
14(11), 1750–2. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080480

Ministry of Health. (2006). National guidelines for diagnosis, treatment & prevention of malaria for health workers. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.

Moody, A. (2002). Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 15(1), 66–78. http: // www. pubmedcentral. fcgi? artid = 118060&tool

Mugenda. O., Mugenda, A. (2003) Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative. ACTS Presss, Nairobi.

Murray, C. K., Gasser, R. A., Magill, A. J., & Miller, R. S. (2008). Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 21(1), 97–110.doi:10.1128/CMR.00035-07

Ngasala, B., Mubi, M., Warsame, M., Petzold, M. G., Massele, A. Y., Gustafsson, L. L., … Bjorkman, A. (2008). Impact of training in clinical and microscopy diagnosis of childhood malaria on antimalarial drug prescription and health outcome at primary health care level in Tanzania: A randomized controlled trial. Malaria Journal, 7, 199. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-7-199

Ofori, M., Ansah, E., Agyepong, I., Ofori-Adjei, D., Hviid, L., & Akanmori, B. (2009).

Pregnancy-associated malaria in a rural community of ghana. Ghana Medical Journal, 43(1), 13–8. fcgi?artid

Park, T. S., Kim, J. H., Kang, C. I., Lee, B. H., Jeon, B. R., Lee, S. M., … Kim, H. H. (2006). Diagnostic usefulness of SD malaria antigen and antibody kits for differential diagnosis of vivax malaria in patients with fever of unknown origin. The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 26(4), 241–5. http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/18156732

WHO. (2011). Universal access to malaria diagnostic testing: An operation manual. World Health Organization (Vol. 12). doi:10.1097/00152192-198501000-00007

WHO, M. R. (2013). World malaria report 2013. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13535

WHO.(2008). Malaria rapid diagnostic tests. areas/diagnosis/rapid- diagnostic-tests/en/
How to Cite
Rono, S., & Yego, E. (2018). The Efficacy of Rapid Diagnostic Test over Blood Slide Microscopy Method used in Diagnosis of Malaria at AIC Kapsowar Mission Hospital. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 3(1), 186-194. Retrieved from