Gender Mainstreaming in TVET Institutions in Kenya

  • Dorcas Mulongo Omukhulu TVETA, State Department of Science and Technology
  • Lettedenghil Ogbanicael Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Githui Kimamo Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
Keywords: Gender mainstreaming, gender parity, GPI, TVET, policy


A countrys most important resource is the skills of its people. To achieve equity and equality in skills development gender mainstreaming was identified by the Kenyan government. In 2007, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) developed Gender in Education policy. There was need to evaluate the implementation process to find out: the extent of gender policy implementation process, and the perception of lecturers towards gender mainstreaming, the findings were meant to inform education stakeholders on progress of implementation. The study was based on the Management Evaluation Model and on Liberal Feminist Theoretical framework. It adopted a mixed method research design and 276 respondents were sampled from ten selected Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions. Probability and non-probability sampling was used to select the 276 respondents. Data was collected through three types of instruments namely questionnaires, interview guide and document analysis guide. Piloting was done to enhance validity and determine reliability of instruments. Quantitative data was analyzed through descriptive statistics, and qualitative data organized into themes and patterns pertinent to the study. It was established that: the gender policy was being implemented in sampled TVET institutions, and the perception of lecturers was positive. It was also established that the implementation process faced challenges. The study concluded that the mean Gender Parity Index (GPI) for the sampled institutions had moved further from one (1) to 0.804 and, lecturers had positive perception towards gender mainstreaming. However, there were some cultural issues hindering gender mainstreaming in TVET institutions, which led to the following recommendations: MoEST and TVET institutions to put in place mechanisms for effective implementation, Cultural inhibitions to be addressed, and Government to set up structures for full implementation of gender policy.

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How to Cite
Omukhulu, D., Ogbanicael, L., & Kimamo, G. (2016). Gender Mainstreaming in TVET Institutions in Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 1(1), 21-30. Retrieved from