Strategy Implementation: A Determinant of Competitive Academic Performance among Secondary Schools in Kenya

  • Festus Kinyua Riungu Thika Technical Training Institute & Kenya Methodist University
  • Thomas A. Senaji, PhD Kenya Methodist University
  • Hellen Mugambi, PhD St. Paul’s University, Limuru, Kenya
Keywords: Academic performance, competitive, strategy implementation


Education plays a critical role in ensuring the survival of any nation in the global economic setup leading to emphasis on quality outcomes of education. Strategic management practice is a very critical factor for any organization’s survival in the modern competitive operating environment. The purpose of the study was to establish whether schools adopt strategic management practices and their influence on competitive academic performance. Strategic management practices were decomposed into specific objectives of environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategy control. The study concentrated on the role of strategy implementation on competitive academic performance of secondary schools. It was conducted in eastern counties of Kenya namely, Meru, Embu, Tharaka Nithi, Kitui and Machakos informed by stakeholder and human resource-based theories of strategic management. The study adopted cross-sectional survey design with a target population of principals of secondary schools in eastern counties with a frame of 919. The counties were divided into strata with a sample of 273 drawn based on survey monkey formula. The counties were further stratified and random samples drawn from each stratum. Data collection was through questionnaires, analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that schools had intricate programmes for strategy implementation and processes which when followed enabled the schools to remain competitive. Overall strategy implementation practice was found to have a significant influence on competitive academic performance. It is recommended that strategic management training be extended to all school principals with emphasis on strategy implementation because the input of employees who are strategy implementers determine performance. Participation in strategy implementation should be through shared responsibility enabling the heads of departments to shoulder responsibility for the outcomes. Finally, the study recommends that principals should be allowed to complete at least two cycles of strategic management in one school for their strategy implementation capabilities to be reflected in academic performance and hence used for making and implementation of proper decisions.

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How to Cite
Riungu, F., Senaji, T., & Mugambi, H. (2019). Strategy Implementation: A Determinant of Competitive Academic Performance among Secondary Schools in Kenya. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 4(1), 197-208. Retrieved from